Black Jelly Ear Fungus
Shooting Date/Time 27/11/2013 04:36:33
Photo By Brittanie Broughton
This cluster stopped me in my tracks. The bottom photo is the underside of the two mushrooms on the right side of the top photo.
Lichen on a single small tree at Fernald Nature Preserve. The bright yellow and pointy-forked-lobed ones don’t seem common in SE Ohio where I hike, which covers a lot of areas. During our hike, my b/f and I joked that any anomaly we saw can be blamed on radioactivity in the soil. Excellent place for birding.
I swear. My brother doesn’t have to walk 10 feet from his garage to have the coolest fungi blooms to gaze at. What a lucky guy. He has no idea.
Lovin the colors as always!!! #mushrooms #mycology #fungus #basket #shrooms #agaricus #chanterelle #bolete #grizette #amanita
This Tree Is Growing 40 Different Kinds Of Fruit At Once
This single (and quite colorfully blossoming) tree grows 40 different varieties of peaches, plums, apricots, nectarines, cherries, and even almonds — but just how does it do it?
It does it through the process of chip grafting. After sculptor Sam Van Aken bought a failing orchard in upstate New York full of hundreds of different fruit trees, he began the pain-staking process of grafting several of the different varieties together into one tree. Six years later, the result is this 40-fruit bearing tree, which includes some heirloom varieties that are centuries old.
Image: Sam Van Aken
Invasion: Type III Secretion System
Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas infect more than 300 different species worldwide. Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria causes bacterial spot disease on pepper and tomato plants.
- The bacteria enter the plant intercellular spaces via natural openings.
- Bacterial surface structures allow the attachment to host cells.
- Xanthomonas produces the extracellular polysaccharide xanthan that protects the bacteria from environmental factors.
- An essential pathogenicity factor is the type III protein secretion system which spans the bacterial membranes…
- … And is associated with an extracellular pilus.
- The pilus is connected to a channel-like translocon that is inserted into the plant plasma membrane.
- The type III secretion system transports approximately 30 different bacterial effector proteins into the plant cell.
- Bacterial effector proteins are transported to different cellular compartments and manipulate host cellular pathways. Some effector proteins reach the plant cell nucleus and modify plant gene expression.
- Effector proteins suppress plant defense responses and promote bacterial multiplication at the infection site.
Video by Bernd Montag, Duc Phan Tran, Felix Herbst, Frank Montag.